New article by S.A. Makievsky in the journal “ART EDUCATION” № 2 (16) December 2020 Read More »

"/> New article by S.A. Makievsky in the journal “ART EDUCATION” № 2 (16) December 2020 – Paratriplet Studio

New article by S.A. Makievsky in the journal “ART EDUCATION” № 2 (16) December 2020

UDC 789+781.62+37.022


The article raises the issue of a little-studied aspect of domestic musical pedagogy in the field of theory and methodology of playing the drum kit. The author differentiates the concepts of "class of percussion instruments" and "class of drum set". Modern terminology is used as the language of specialization, accepted in the international educational practice of musicians-drummers. The author's method of studying the drum rudiment "Single paratriplet" in the context of sounding and latent metrorhythmic combinations is presented..

Keywords: drum kit, rudimentary theory, drum rudiment, paradiddl, paratriplet, drama set, rhythm theory, metro rhythm, learning to play the drums, drummer performance technique.


The article raises the problem of a little-studied aspect of native music pedagogy in the field of theory and methods of playing the drumset. The author differentiates the concepts of «percussion instrument class» and «drumsetclass». As the language of specialization, the modern terminology adopted in the international educational practice of drummers is used. The research presents the author’s method of studying the drum rudiment «Single paratriplet» in the context of sounding and latent metrorhythmic combinations.

Keywords: drumset, rudimentaltheory, drum kit, paradiddle, paratriplet, drum set, theory of rhythm, metrorhythm, teaching to play the drum, performing technique of a drummer.

Each artist in his work discovers a lot for himself and yet is rarely a good teacher..

L. Mackinnon

Concerning the problems of learning to play the drum set, we are always under the impression that, that we are looking for a way out of the labyrinth and at the same time we are near it ...

In the early 80s of the last century, departments and departments of pop and jazz music were opened throughout the country.. At the same time in. Kohnen points out serious problems in modern music education: “The teachers of our music schools and the lecturers of the philharmonics have long drawn attention to the gap, which has formed in the meantime, what taught in educational institutions and presented from the concert stage, and what really interests most of the youth. Even just getting in touch with this problem is frighteningly difficult.” [3, with. 117].

But it turned out, that paying attention to a problematic situation does not at all determine the resolution of pressing issues. And if academic education is rightfully proud of its historical heritage and the pedagogical elite, then the modern pop direction for certain types of disciplines, in particular, drum set class, still, to put it mildly, fictitious due to little research of the problem.

Drum kit, like any other musical instrument, has its "intellectual" side. It is also important to note that, that when designating the specialization itself behind the scenes, differences have long been identified: performers on percussion instruments in classical music are called "drummers", and in the pop - "drummers".

One side, in most cases, the teaching contingent of the drum kit class of secondary and higher educational institutions is made up of certified academic drummer musicians, which, обучаясь в вузах, не касаются теории и практики игры на этом инструменте. Их знания об организации обучения игре на ударной установке адекватны автодидактам, practicing musicians without education, sometimes even brilliant performers, but with limited theoretical and methodological knowledge. В результате чего сложилось мнение о некой свободе в выборе дидактических материалов по специальности, что и привело к тотальной дезорганизации в обучении молодёжи игре на ударной установке.

С другой стороны, большое количество частных издательств плодят армию любителей-графоманов из числа «музыкальных гуру». Авторы самиздата отечественных пособий для ударной установки, бравируя своим отрицанием научного познания, не считают для себя нужным грамотно излагать общепринятые постулаты теории музыки. To acquire basic playing skills, they traditionally recommend using domestic editions of K. Kupinsky, Yu. Kuzmina, AT. Snegireva, T. Egorova and V. Steimana, AT. Precipitation, Well. Ахунова и других, designed to develop the technique of playing the snare drum of academic drummers. It does not do without training aids for a military drummer from foreign authors: A. Moller, Ch. Wilcoxon, J. Stone, J. Pratt, To. Here, D. Palieva, AT. Skover and others. At the same time, little attention is paid to the traditional methods of teaching how to play the drum set of such masters., as used. Rich, M. Spivak, J. Cereals, L. Bellson et al., which are universal, unaffected by fashion trends.

The role of the snare drum in a military band is limited to the service repertoire in military rituals.. The process of learning to play the drum set requires a special approach., than other instruments of the membranophone group. Here, the formation of performing technique is built taking into account the constructive knowledge about the synchronization of the drummer's musculoskeletal system and, first of all, the well-developed mobility of the shoulder girdle in all three planes. (frontal, vertical, sagittal) [7]. Скоординировать в едином ансамбле звучание всех инструментов комплекта (drum set), каждый из которых имеет индивидуальную характеристику звучания и отражающую способность, - is the most important task of training.

As for the methodological material of direct purpose for the drum set, то отечественная школа уже давно рекрутирует пособия популярных представителей западной сцены, безоговорочно поддаваясь их влиянию вовсе не по причине их «высоко рентабельных методик», а исповедуя принцип «магии имени». Это весьма профессиональные исполнители, такие как: D. Вэкл, D. Garibaldi, D. Chester, B. An oar, J. Mayer, T. Go ahead, T. Lang, D. Cheffy, D. Harrison, R. Latham, J. Chapin, D. Rilly, T. Reid and others.

However, it would be naive to talk about their volunteer mission to teach the Slavs "drumming". Их цель больше прагматичная, коммерческая, is not at all intended for the development of the intellectual level of our student and his perception of Western musical culture. If we analyze the teaching aids of the above authors, then you can make sure, that they position the learning of individual performance techniques, iterative exercises, the implementation of which without basic training is not possible. As practice shows, такие материалы не обеспечивают полноты учебно-познавательного процесса. Так стоит ли рассматривать их ценность в контексте нашей ментальности, психологии, если они ориентированы на культурные традиции Запада, не допускающего распространения своих «ноу-хау» методик в каких бы то ни было учебных пособиях?

We will not list here modern textbooks for the drum set by domestic authors.. Usually, it is a compilation practice, сформированная на материалах тех же зарубежных источников. В них так же отсутствует систематизация педагогического процесса: теоретическая база и методическая последовательность познавательного развития, настраивающая мышление студента на самостоятельную творческую работу.

Modern drum training requires knowledge of the traditional rudimentary system (English. Rudimental Drumming) fingering-rhythmic figures (like musical scales), adapted for practical drumming. Authoritative American teacher-reformer and percussionist. Ludwig noted: "Military conductors, а также учителя игры на барабанах осознают значимость барабанных рудиментов. В результате чего современная Америка может справедливо гордиться тем, что у нас самые лучшие барабанщики…» [9].

Why did it happen, what drum rudiments1, out of Europe (Switzerland, Basel, XIV в.) [6], received recognition and influenced the musical development of American and Western European drummers, but poorly integrated into the domestic educational system? After all, one cannot question the talent of our musicians and their ability to progress and develop.?! Suffice it to recall the outstanding drummers of Soviet jazz, among which A. Goretkin (orchestra p/u V. Ludvikovsky), WITH. Fradkin and N. Samoshnikov (jazz orchestra L. Utyosov), L. To find (orchestra p/u A. Tsfasman), B. Matveev (jazz orchestra. Rosner), I. Yurchenko (orchestra p/u O. Lundstrom), AT. Bulanov (Quartet "KM" p/u V. Sermakasheva), S. Korostelev (Quartet "Cadence" G. Lukyanova), R. Cabinets (Ensemble "Gunesh"). But these were (and will) isolated cases of the birth of nugget performers; We are talking about problems in national education., and not about individual creative personalities.

Yet 30 years ago, for the first time in the USSR, I published books on the subject of rudimentary theory and practice, in which the terminological base of the drummer's rudimentary system is formed, а учебные материалы адаптированы для его восприятия нашим менталитетом. Публикацией этих книг занималось одно из ведущих музыкальных издательств того времени «Музична Украïна»; they were highly appreciated by specialists and sold in large numbers throughout the country. Помешали этой методике стать стимулом для создания единой концептуальной программы обучения игре на ударной установке перестроечные процессы, как в стране, так и образовательной сфере. The big problem remains, what a drum set, although it is “registered” in the domestic educational system as an independent tool, but to this day it is considered as part of the entire group of percussion instruments, which does not take into account its features.

To motivate arguments about the need to create a separate training course for playing the drum kit, below is an example of the author's analytical analysis of the rhythmic model Одинарного парадиддла – одного из барабанных рудиментов парадиддловой концепции в рудиментальной системе барабанщика [5].

Одинарный парадиддл

Single Paradiddle

Пример 1.

(R – правая рука, L – левая рука)

Let's explain right away, that the specifics of musical notation for a drum set has its own characteristics: stems from noteheads always point upwards, поскольку ударная установка относится к категории инструментов без определённой длительности и высоты звучания. Therefore, the notation for the drum set is variable compared to the accepted norms and rules in academic musical notation. [4].

Paradiddle in binary rhythm

Одинарный парадиддл (Single Paradiddle) - one of the basic рудиментов дидактической системы барабанщика, в котором присутствует сочетание двух исполнительских приёмов – пары переменных одиночных ударов и дубль-удара диддла (Diddle).

Аппликатурно-ритмическая модель:

Пример 2.

Если рассматривать этимологическую сторону термина «парадиддл», то получим:
1) пара (from lat. par – равный), то есть, два идентичных элемента;

2) нахождения, расположения, standing next to, around.

In general, the first part of the term "para-" denotes the presence of a pair of variables (with two hands) single strikes, standing in front of the diddle (Diddle), where diddl is a sound imitation of a double-hit, исполняемого на одно движение руки:

Пример 3.

The basis is a fingering-schematic representation of hand movements in a rudiment by musical signs. The base is called variable, if the next pattern is played from the opposite hand; invariable - play with only one hand, from right or left [5].

Icon (v) – Thesis (Downstroke) - indicates the blow of the stick from the downward movement of the hand from a high position. The next note
signed (ʌ) – Arsis (Upstroke) - indicates the release of the hand up simultaneously with a light blow of the stick with a movement from the wrist. This will be preparation for the execution of the next model. Down movement should be smooth, "flight", easy to perform, without willpower. Diddle is performed with one movement of the hand, with a slight emphasis on the second stroke, like staccato or spiccato - "jumping" stroke, strike articulation, приём, обозначаемый термином «снеп» (English. snap – щёлкать).
Для совершенствования исполнительских навыков игры парадиддла с любой единицы тактового времени достаточно осуществить
пермутацию – перемещение диддла внутри ритмической модели парадиддла:

Пример 4.

Пример 5.

Пример 6.

Аппликатурный реверс

Пример 7.

Рассмотрим некоторые детали теоретического и практического аспектов исполнения парадиддла.

В интерпретациях рудиментов на инструменте допускается произвольный творческий процесс, при котором можно проводить всевозможные пермутации (аналогично принципу обращения трезвучий), интерпретации и другие аранжировки для всей ударной установки. Любые вариации игры парадиддла руками называется «мануальная координация»:

Пример 8.

In this case, multiple options are possible using plates:

Пример 9.

Paradiddle can be practiced with feet, what we define as "pedal coordination":

Пример 10.

When playing the paradiddle with both hands and feet, the structural fingering content and the meaning of the rudiment are lost., при котором он переходит в разряд ординарной ритмической модели:

Пример 11.

Такую транскрипцию можно назвать координацией на основе аппликатурно-ритмической модели парадиддла, но не как игра rudiment "Single Paradiddle". According to Noah Webster, rudiment is "the first law of any art or science" [10]. Therefore, one logical detail should be clarified, that any drum rudiment is an integral fingering-rhythmic unit of the system, not subject to free division and personal rethinking!

Paradiddle in ternary (triplet) rhythm. Single paratriplet Single Раratriplet

Now we have come to the most significant point of the study. paradiddle concept - the formation of a single paradiddle in triplet rhythm, модель которого называется «Одинарный паратриплет»: пара – парадиддл + триплет (English. triplet) – триоль.

Если рассматривать этот rudiment с позиции исполнения (аппликации) его в триольном ритме, then it will look like an ordinary fingering exercise in a triplet sequence:

Пример 12.

Consider these finger combinations:

Пример 13.

The example demonstrates two triplet sequences, built on the fingering model Одинарного парадиддла:

Пример 14.

Пример 15.

Even a superficial analysis indicates that, that such a combination does not reveal functional signs Одинарного парадиддла, its "binary" nature of sound, and fractional accents form in our minds a typical triplet rhythm in time 4/4. Po- the most logical musical notation for paratriplet will use the rhythmic basis, consisting of a triplet of half note values ​​in time 4/4, each of which contains one rhythmic formula Одинарного парадиддла. Take a look at the entry paratriplet in this view:

Пример 16.

In this case we have the same Одинарный парадиддл with all the hallmarks of the original rhythmic pattern binary form, formed in ternary presentation. Here paradiddl presented without reference to the metric accent, with respect to what. Kholopova wrote, that “it is the rhythmic formula that is important, its internal structure, and not the outer limits of the bar" [8, with. 141].

Thanks to, what pattern second fingering sequence Одинарного парадиддла not complete, ends with R-arm, we have the opportunity to repeat the exercise with the L-hand. As a result, we have an ideal progression for the development of proportional symmetry of the performing apparatus..

Such an organization allows you to feel and discover a new form of synthesis of metro rhythms.. This will be the sign ternary relation, where is the manifestation factor of the third element, "silent", arises through mental sensations of latent metrorhythmic combinations. Let's take an example of such a combination.:

Пример 17.

Isolating from the general rhythmic sequence paratriplet basic pulsation silent rhythm (term M. Arkadieva) [1], get:

Пример 18.

In this diagram, we see those rhythmic combinations, which are not indicated in musical notation. That's what it is latent rhythms, which cannot be calledcross» (Cross-rhythm), because they are voiceless, flowing inside our consciousness. They are the bearers of the stability of musical time., contributing to internal subordination in the sense of current rhythms. In this regard, in. Kholopova noted: “Musical rhythm does not lie in the plane of a single temporal parameter, but performs its function subject to the connection and other parameters of music " [8, with. 107].

It is when using парадиддла in ternary rhythm the paradigm of metrorhythmic sensation is laid, at which they smooth out, all static processes are leveled, объединяя конфликтующие метрические континуумы, создавая третий компонент – «гармонию ритма» – ощущение единого целого музыкального времени композиции. О формировании признаков ternaries Guo Xiaoli noted the following: "…if binary - this is an opposition, that ternarity - this is the identification of the ratio of two opposite principles and their harmonious combination into a single whole " [2, with. 96].

Diddle permutation in the rhythmic model of the paratriplet

Good sense of metro-rhythmic conflict (dissonance) can be formed using the author's method of working on A single paratriplet with options diddla permutations inside the rhythm pattern paratriplet, like him, what was proposed for Одинарного парадиддла in binary rhythm. Generally exercise contains four rhythmic lines of exercises, by the number of circulation диддла in A single paratriplet. We believe, that the first line is enough for analytical analysis, basic fingering-rhythmic sequence rudiment, to form a complete picture of the constructive work on paratriplet.

Пример 19.

First of all, you need to introduce a motor sensation of static (metric) pulse. To do this, we will connect the bass drum to the game for each metric beat of the measure.:

First of all, you need to introduce a motor sensation of static (metric) pulse. To do this, we will connect the bass drum to the game for each metric beat of the measure.:

Пример 20.

When the paratriplet is combined with playing the bass drum in the second measure of the 1st line, the sensations of a polyrhythmic ratio are clearly manifested. 3 on 4, which is reflected in the following musical scheme:

Пример 21.

Необходимо хорошо осмыслить простейшие организации двух акцентных структур, одна из которых представлена тактовым метром, and the second one is formed due to the cluster selection of the main accent from double rhythmic phrases, following in parallel
metric bar accentuation. This introduces a sense of conflict regarding the share cycles of the title size., creating a new type of internal metric proportions 6 on 4 - in the first step and 3 on 4 - in the second. Best for this job
placing accents in this way, at which hemiola formation occurs (from Greek. miolios - one and a half). Note, what
the concept of "hemiola" was introduced into domestic science by V.. N. Kholopova. This is a metric, when binary proportions are formed from the total composition of tripartite units, as W wrote. Kholopova: “combination of binary with ternarity…” [8, with. 124]. Such combinations can be represented in various musical notations.:

Пример 22.

Пример 23.

The same hemiola principle can be formed in the triplet rhythm of time 4/4, in which, when creating bipartite proportions, we get the formation of polyrhythmic combinations 6 on 4:

Пример 24.

In this case, the formation of the hemiola will already look like this:

Пример 25.

All the silent rhythms, fixed at the level of mechanisms of mental activity, we can display in a graphical way of writing:

Пример 26.

Is it possible to point out all the problems with one publication, hindering the development of the drummer's performance skills? Definitely, No. Moreover, a single specialization will not become a measure of clarity of perception for other specialists., but it can really inspire personal ideas and take a closer look at some shortcomings, hindering the development of pop art in general. You should seriously think about, that to this day, when teaching students at pop faculties, the reproductive method is used on the principle of "play like me". The problem is not so much the teaching staff of the drum kit class., how much is that, that goals are not defined, methodological educational programs for the education of musicians-drummers have not been formed.

If we look deeper into the problem, it is high time to get rid of the cliches and talk not just about the preparation of pop
drummer, but about individual stylistic directions "jazz", "rock", "pop" and get rid of synthetic specializations, offering a versatile musician for our stage, playing in all directions.


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1Rudiment - a denotation of a certain rhythmic fingering figure.