New article by S.A. Makievsky in the journal “ART EDUCATION” № 2 (16) December 2020 Read More »

"/> New article by S.A. Makievsky in the journal “ART EDUCATION” № 2 (16) December 2020 – Paratriplet Studio

New article by S.A. Makievsky in the journal “ART EDUCATION” № 2 (16) December 2020

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The article raises the issue of a little-studied aspect of domestic musical pedagogy in the field of theory and methodology of playing the drum kit. The author differentiates the concepts of "class of percussion instruments" and "class of drum set". Modern terminology is used as the language of specialization, accepted in the international educational practice of musicians-drummers. The author's method of studying the drum rudiment "Single paratriplet" in the context of sounding and latent metrorhythmic combinations is presented..

Keywords: drum kit, rudimentary theory, drum rudiment, paradiddl, paratriplet, drama set, rhythm theory, metro rhythm, learning to play the drums, drummer performance technique.


The article raises the problem of a little-studied aspect of native music pedagogy in the field of theory and methods of playing the drumset. The author differentiates the concepts of «percussion instrument class» and «drumsetclass». As the language of specialization, the modern terminology adopted in the international educational practice of drummers is used. The research presents the author’s method of studying the drum rudiment «Single paratriplet» in the context of sounding and latent metrorhythmic combinations.

Keywords: drumset, rudimentaltheory, drum kit, paradiddle, paratriplet, drum set, theory of rhythm, metrorhythm, teaching to play the drum, performing technique of a drummer.

Each artist in his work discovers a lot for himself and yet is rarely a good teacher..

L. Mackinnon

Concerning the problems of learning to play the drum set, we are always under the impression that, that we are looking for a way out of the labyrinth and at the same time we are near it ...

In the early 80s of the last century, departments and departments of pop and jazz music were opened throughout the country.. At the same time in. Kohnen points out serious problems in modern music education: “The teachers of our music schools and the lecturers of the philharmonics have long drawn attention to the gap, which has formed in the meantime, what taught in educational institutions and presented from the concert stage, and what really interests most of the youth. Even just getting in touch with this problem is frighteningly difficult.” [3, with. 117].

But it turned out, that paying attention to a problematic situation does not at all determine the resolution of pressing issues. And if academic education is rightfully proud of its historical heritage and the pedagogical elite, then the modern pop direction for certain types of disciplines, in particular, drum set class, still, to put it mildly, fictitious due to little research of the problem.

Drum kit, like any other musical instrument, has its "intellectual" side. It is also important to note that, that when designating the specialization itself behind the scenes, differences have long been identified: performers on percussion instruments in classical music are called "drummers", and in the pop - "drummers".

One side, in most cases, the teaching contingent of the drum kit class of secondary and higher educational institutions is made up of certified academic drummer musicians, which, studying at universities, do not concern the theory and practice of playing this instrument. Their knowledge about the organization of learning to play the drum set is adequate to autodidacts, practicing musicians without education, sometimes even brilliant performers, but with limited theoretical and methodological knowledge. As a result, there was an opinion about a certain freedom in the choice of didactic materials in the specialty, which led to total disorganization in teaching young people to play the drum kit.

On the other side, a large number of private publishing houses produce an army of amateur graphomaniacs from among the "music gurus". Authors of samizdat of domestic manuals for drum set, flaunting their denial of scientific knowledge, do not consider it necessary to correctly state the generally accepted postulates of music theory. To acquire basic playing skills, they traditionally recommend using domestic editions of K. Kupinsky, Yu. Kuzmina, AT. Snegireva, T. Egorova and V. Steimana, AT. Precipitation, Well. Akhunov and others, designed to develop the technique of playing the snare drum of academic drummers. It does not do without training aids for a military drummer from foreign authors: A. Moller, Ch. Wilcoxon, J. Stone, J. Pratt, To. Here, D. Palieva, AT. Skover and others. At the same time, little attention is paid to the traditional methods of teaching how to play the drum set of such masters., as used. Rich, M. Spivak, J. Cereals, L. Bellson et al., which are universal, unaffected by fashion trends.

The role of the snare drum in a military band is limited to the service repertoire in military rituals.. The process of learning to play the drum set requires a special approach., than other instruments of the membranophone group. Here, the formation of performing technique is built taking into account the constructive knowledge about the synchronization of the drummer's musculoskeletal system and, first of all, the well-developed mobility of the shoulder girdle in all three planes. (frontal, vertical, sagittal) [7]. Coordinate in a single ensemble the sound of all the instruments of the set (drum set), each of which has an individual sound characteristic and reflectivity, - is the most important task of training.

As for the methodological material of direct purpose for the drum set, then the domestic school has long been recruiting benefits from popular representatives of the Western scene, unconditionally succumbing to their influence, not at all because of their "highly cost-effective methods", but professing the principle of "name magic". They are very professional performers., such as: D. Weckl, D. Garibaldi, D. Chester, B. An oar, J. Mayer, T. Go ahead, T. Lang, D. Cheffy, D. Harrison, R. Latham, J. Chapin, D. Rilly, T. Reid and others.

However, it would be naive to talk about their volunteer mission to teach the Slavs "drumming". Their goal is more pragmatic, a commercial, is not at all intended for the development of the intellectual level of our student and his perception of Western musical culture. If we analyze the teaching aids of the above authors, then you can make sure, that they position the learning of individual performance techniques, iterative exercises, the implementation of which without basic training is not possible. As practice shows, such materials do not provide the completeness of the educational and cognitive process. So is it worth considering their value in the context of our mentality, psychology, if they are oriented to the cultural traditions of the West, not allowing the dissemination of their "know-how" methods in any textbooks?

We will not list here modern textbooks for the drum set by domestic authors.. Usually, it is a compilation practice, formed on the materials of the same foreign sources. They also lack the systematization of the pedagogical process.: theoretical basis and methodological sequence of cognitive development, adjusting the student's thinking for independent creative work.

Modern drum training requires knowledge of the traditional rudimentary system (English. Rudimental Drumming) fingering-rhythmic figures (like musical scales), adapted for practical drumming. Authoritative American teacher-reformer and percussionist. Ludwig noted: "Military conductors, as well as drum teachers realize the importance of drum rudiments. As a result, modern America can justifiably be proud of, that we have the best drummers ... " [9].

Why did it happen, what drum rudiments1, out of Europe (Switzerland, Basel, XIV в.) [6], received recognition and influenced the musical development of American and Western European drummers, but poorly integrated into the domestic educational system? After all, one cannot question the talent of our musicians and their ability to progress and develop.?! Suffice it to recall the outstanding drummers of Soviet jazz, among which A. Goretkin (orchestra p/u V. Ludvikovsky), WITH. Fradkin and N. Samoshnikov (jazz orchestra L. Utyosov), L. To find (orchestra p/u A. Tsfasman), B. Matveev (jazz orchestra. Rosner), I. Yurchenko (orchestra p/u O. Lundstrom), AT. Bulanov (Quartet "KM" p/u V. Sermakasheva), S. Korostelev (Quartet "Cadence" G. Lukyanova), R. Cabinets (Ensemble "Gunesh"). But these were (and will) isolated cases of the birth of nugget performers; We are talking about problems in national education., and not about individual creative personalities.

Yet 30 years ago, for the first time in the USSR, I published books on the subject of rudimentary theory and practice, in which the terminological base of the drummer's rudimentary system is formed, and educational materials are adapted for its perception by our mentality. The publication of these books was carried out by one of the leading music publishing houses of that time "Musical Ukraine"; they were highly appreciated by specialists and sold in large numbers throughout the country. Perestroika processes prevented this technique from becoming an incentive for creating a unified conceptual program for teaching how to play the drum kit., like in the country, as well as the educational field. The big problem remains, what a drum set, although it is “registered” in the domestic educational system as an independent tool, but to this day it is considered as part of the entire group of percussion instruments, which does not take into account its features.

To motivate arguments about the need to create a separate training course for playing the drum kit, below is an example of the author's analytical analysis of the rhythmic model A single paradiddle - one of the drum rudiments paradiddle concept in the drummer's rudimentary system [5].

Single paradiddle

Single Paradiddle

Example 1.

(R - right hand, L - left hand)

Let's explain right away, that the specifics of musical notation for a drum set has its own characteristics: stems from noteheads always point upwards, since the drum kit belongs to the category of instruments without a certain duration and pitch. Therefore, the notation for the drum set is variable compared to the accepted norms and rules in academic musical notation. [4].

Paradiddle in binary rhythm

Single paradiddle (Single Paradiddle) - one of the basic rudiment drummer's didactic system, in which there is a combination of two performing techniques - pairs of variable singles and double-strike diddla (Diddle).

Fingering-rhythmic model:

Example 2.

If we consider the etymological side of the term "paradiddle", i get that:
1) pair (from lat. par - equal), that is, two identical elements;

2) finding, location, standing next to, around.

In general, the first part of the term "para-" denotes the presence of a pair of variables (with two hands) single strikes, standing in front of the diddle (Diddle), where diddl is a sound imitation of a double-hit, performed with one movement of the hand:

Example 3.

The basis is a fingering-schematic representation of hand movements in a rudiment by musical signs. The base is called variable, if the next pattern is played from the opposite hand; invariable - play with only one hand, from right or left [5].

Icon (v) – Thesis (Downstroke) - indicates the blow of the stick from the downward movement of the hand from a high position. The next note
signed (ʌ) – Arsis (Upstroke) - indicates the release of the hand up simultaneously with a light blow of the stick with a movement from the wrist. This will be preparation for the execution of the next model. Down movement should be smooth, "flight", easy to perform, without willpower. Diddle is performed with one movement of the hand, with a slight emphasis on the second stroke, like staccato or spiccato - "jumping" stroke, strike articulation, reception, referred to as "snap" (English. snap - click).
To improve the performing skills of playing a paradiddle from any unit of clock time, it is enough to carry out
permutation - movement of the diddle within the rhythmic pattern of the paradiddle:

Example 4.

Example 5.

Example 6.

Fingering reverse

Example 7.

Let's consider some details of the theoretical and practical aspects of paradiddle execution.

An arbitrary creative process is allowed in the interpretation of the rudiments on the instrument, in which all kinds of permutations can be carried out (similar to the principle of reversal of triads), interpretations and other arrangements for the entire drum kit. Any variation of playing the paradiddle with the hands is called "manual coordination":

Example 8.

In this case, multiple options are possible using plates:

Example 9.

Paradiddle can be practiced with feet, what we define as "pedal coordination":

Example 10.

When playing the paradiddle with both hands and feet, the structural fingering content and the meaning of the rudiment are lost., at which it passes into the category of an ordinary rhythmic model:

Example 11.

This transcription can be called coordination based on the fingering-rhythmic model paradiddla, but not like a game rudiment "Single Paradiddle". According to Noah Webster, rudiment is "the first law of any art or science" [10]. Therefore, one logical detail should be clarified, that any drum rudiment is an integral fingering-rhythmic unit of the system, not subject to free division and personal rethinking!

Paradiddle in ternary (triplet) rhythm. Single paratriplet Single Раratriplet

Now we have come to the most significant point of the study. paradiddle concept - the formation of a single paradiddle in triplet rhythm, whose model is called "Single paratriplet": para - paradiddl + triplet (English. triplet) - triplet.

If we consider this rudiment from the point of view of performance (applications) him in triplet rhythm, then it will look like an ordinary fingering exercise in a triplet sequence:

Example 12.

Consider these finger combinations:

Example 13.

The example demonstrates two triplet sequences, built on the fingering model A single paradiddle:

Example 14.

Example 15.

Even a superficial analysis indicates that, that such a combination does not reveal functional signs A single paradiddle, its "binary" nature of sound, and fractional accents form in our minds a typical triplet rhythm in time 4/4. Po- the most logical musical notation for paratriplet will use the rhythmic basis, consisting of a triplet of half note values ​​in time 4/4, each of which contains one rhythmic formula A single paradiddle. Take a look at the entry paratriplet in this view:

Example 16.

In this case we have the same Single paradiddle with all the hallmarks of the original rhythmic pattern binary form, formed in ternary presentation. Here paradiddl presented without reference to the metric accent, with respect to what. Kholopova wrote, that “it is the rhythmic formula that is important, its internal structure, and not the outer limits of the bar" [8, with. 141].

Thanks to, what pattern second fingering sequence A single paradiddle not complete, ends with R-arm, we have the opportunity to repeat the exercise with the L-hand. As a result, we have an ideal progression for the development of proportional symmetry of the performing apparatus..

Such an organization allows you to feel and discover a new form of synthesis of metro rhythms.. This will be the sign ternary relation, where is the manifestation factor of the third element, "silent", arises through mental sensations of latent metrorhythmic combinations. Let's take an example of such a combination.:

Example 17.

Isolating from the general rhythmic sequence paratriplet basic pulsation silent rhythm (term M. Arkadieva) [1], get:

Example 18.

In this diagram, we see those rhythmic combinations, which are not indicated in musical notation. That's what it is latent rhythms, which cannot be calledcross» (Cross-rhythm), because they are voiceless, flowing inside our consciousness. They are the bearers of the stability of musical time., contributing to internal subordination in the sense of current rhythms. In this regard, in. Kholopova noted: “Musical rhythm does not lie in the plane of a single temporal parameter, but performs its function subject to the connection and other parameters of music " [8, with. 107].

It is when using paradiddla in ternary rhythm the paradigm of metrorhythmic sensation is laid, at which they smooth out, all static processes are leveled, combining conflicting metric continuums, creating the third component - "harmony of rhythm" - the feeling of a single whole musical time of the composition. About the formation of features ternaries Guo Xiaoli noted the following: "…if binary - this is an opposition, that ternarity - this is the identification of the ratio of two opposite principles and their harmonious combination into a single whole " [2, with. 96].

Diddle permutation in the rhythmic model of the paratriplet

Good sense of metro-rhythmic conflict (dissonance) can be formed using the author's method of working on A single paratriplet with options diddla permutations inside the rhythm pattern paratriplet, like him, what was proposed for A single paradiddle in binary rhythm. Generally exercise contains four rhythmic lines of exercises, by the number of circulation diddla in A single paratriplet. We believe, that the first line is enough for analytical analysis, basic fingering-rhythmic sequence rudiment, to form a complete picture of the constructive work on paratriplet.

Example 19.

First of all, you need to introduce a motor sensation of static (metric) pulse. To do this, we will connect the bass drum to the game for each metric beat of the measure.:

First of all, you need to introduce a motor sensation of static (metric) pulse. To do this, we will connect the bass drum to the game for each metric beat of the measure.:

Example 20.

When the paratriplet is combined with playing the bass drum in the second measure of the 1st line, the sensations of a polyrhythmic ratio are clearly manifested. 3 on 4, which is reflected in the following musical scheme:

Example 21.

It is necessary to comprehend well the simplest organizations of the two accent structures, one of which is represented by a clock meter, and the second one is formed due to the cluster selection of the main accent from double rhythmic phrases, following in parallel
metric bar accentuation. This introduces a sense of conflict regarding the share cycles of the title size., creating a new type of internal metric proportions 6 on 4 - in the first step and 3 on 4 - in the second. Best for this job
placing accents in this way, at which hemiola formation occurs (from Greek. miolios - one and a half). Note, what
the concept of "hemiola" was introduced into domestic science by V.. N. Kholopova. This is a metric, when binary proportions are formed from the total composition of tripartite units, as W wrote. Kholopova: “combination of binary with ternarity…” [8, with. 124]. Such combinations can be represented in various musical notations.:

Example 22.

Example 23.

The same hemiola principle can be formed in the triplet rhythm of time 4/4, in which, when creating bipartite proportions, we get the formation of polyrhythmic combinations 6 on 4:

Example 24.

In this case, the formation of the hemiola will already look like this:

Example 25.

All the silent rhythms, fixed at the level of mechanisms of mental activity, we can display in a graphical way of writing:

Example 26.

Is it possible to point out all the problems with one publication, hindering the development of the drummer's performance skills? Definitely, No. Moreover, a single specialization will not become a measure of clarity of perception for other specialists., but it can really inspire personal ideas and take a closer look at some shortcomings, hindering the development of pop art in general. You should seriously think about, that to this day, when teaching students at pop faculties, the reproductive method is used on the principle of "play like me". The problem is not so much the teaching staff of the drum kit class., how much is that, that goals are not defined, methodological educational programs for the education of musicians-drummers have not been formed.

If we look deeper into the problem, it is high time to get rid of the cliches and talk not just about the preparation of pop
drummer, but about individual stylistic directions "jazz", "rock", "pop" and get rid of synthetic specializations, offering a versatile musician for our stage, playing in all directions.


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1Rudiment - a denotation of a certain rhythmic fingering figure.